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In a stark departure from the last few years, one of the most debated state tax policy issues in 2013 has been the gasoline tax (PDF). Until this February, it had been almost three years since any state’s lawmakers approved an increase or reform of their gasoline tax. That changed when Wyoming Governor Matt Mead signed into law a 10 cent gas tax hike passed by his state’s legislature. Since then, Virginia has reformed its gas tax to grow over time alongside gas prices, and Maryland has both increased and reformed its gas tax. By the time states’ 2013 legislative sessions come to a close, the list of states having improved their gas taxes is likely to be even longer.
Massachusetts appears to be the most likely candidate for gas tax reform. Both the House and Senate have passed bills immediately raising the state gas tax by 3 cents per gallon, and reforming the tax so that its flat per-gallon amount keeps pace with inflation in the future (see chart here). In late 2011, the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy (ITEP) found that Massachusetts is among the states where inflation has been most damaging to the state transportation budget—costing some $451 million in revenue per year relative to where the gas tax stood in 1991 when it was last raised. Governor Deval Patrick has expressed frustration that legislators passed plans lacking more revenue for education—in sharp contrast to his own plan to increase the income tax—but he has also signaled that there may be room for compromise.
Vermont lawmakers are also giving very serious consideration to gas tax reform. At the Governor’s urging, the House passed a bill increasing the portion of Vermont’s gas tax that already grows alongside gas prices. The bill also reforms the flat-rate portion of Vermont’s gas tax to grow with inflation. The Senate is now debating the idea, and early reports indicate that the package may be tweaked to rely slightly more on diesel taxes in order to reduce the size of the increase on gasoline.
Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett has also proposed raising and reforming his state’s gasoline tax. While Pennsylvania’s tax is technically supposed to grow alongside gas prices, an obsolete tax cap limits the rate from rising when gas prices exceed $1.25 per gallon. Corbett would like to remove that cap in order to improve the sustainability of the state’s revenues, and members of his administration have been traveling the state to explain how doing so would benefit Pennsylvanians. While the legislature has yet to act on his plan, the fact that it has the backing of the state’s Chamber of Business and Industry is likely to help its chances.
In New Hampshire, the Governor has said she is open to raising the state gas tax and the House has passed a bill doing exactly that. But there are indications that lawmakers in the state Senate might continue procrastinating on raising the tax, as the state has done for over two decades.
Nevada lawmakers are discussing a gas tax increase following the release of a report showing that the state’s outdated transportation system is costing drivers $1,500 per year. ITEP analyzed a gas tax proposal receiving consideration in the Nevada House and found that even with the increase, the state’s gas tax rate (adjusted for inflation) would still remain low relative to its levels in years past.
Iowa lawmakers have been debating a gas tax increase for a number of years, and there may be enough support in the legislature to finally see one enacted into law. The major stumbling block is that Governor Branstad will only agree to raise the gas tax if it’s part of a larger package that cuts revenue overall—particularly revenues from the property tax. As we’ve explained in the past, such a move would effectively benefit the state’s roads at the expense of its schools.
Earlier this year, Washington State House lawmakers unveiled a plan raising the state’s gas tax by 10 cents per gallon and increasing vehicle registration fees. Senate leaders are reportedly less excited about the idea of a gasoline tax hike, though there are indications they would consider such an increase if it were to pass the House. While talk of a 10 cent increase has since quieted down, there are rumors that a smaller increase could be enacted.
Unfortunately, some states where the chances of gas tax reform once appeared promising have since begun to move away from the idea. In Michigan, while the Governor and the state Chamber of Commerce have voiced strong support for generating additional revenue through the gas tax, neither the House nor the Senate appears likely to vote in favor of such a reform this year. Meanwhile, the chances for a gas tax increase in Minnesota seem to have faded after the Governor came out against an increase and the House subsequently unveiled a tax plan that leaves the gas tax untouched.
Overall, 2013 has already been a significant year for state gas tax reform. Both Maryland and Virginia have abandoned their unsustainable flat gas taxes in favor of a better gas tax that grows over time, just like construction costs inevitably will. Hopefully, within the next few months, more states will have followed their lead.